“Maps are powerful tools”, said John Hamer at the 2011 John Whitmer Historical Association meetings. His remarks have be published in the latest issue of the John Whitmer Historical Association Journal (Fall/Winter 2012). He goes on to say
Beyond their capacity to dazzle, maps allow historians to organize information in a completely different way than traditional narrative text. As a result, maps give historians the potential to discover and relate connections that might otherwise be overlooked.
As with any powerful tool, however, maps can also be dangerous…maps reflect the biases of their makers.
Depending on how their information is arrayed, graphs, and charts can be used to illustrative opposite conclusions. Maps are no different. Consider, for example four separate maps of the US presidential elections. A simple area map (fig 1.9A) shows the land area of the US almost evenly divided between Barack Obama and John McCain. However, because McCain’s states were relatively under populated for their size, they yielded far fewer electors.
A map showing electoral votes (fig 1.9B) illustrates much more clearly a landslide in favor in Obama’s favor. Even more pronounced is a map showing the winner of each county (fig 1.9c). Again, because McCain performed especially well in large and largely empty rural counties, Obama’s support appears restricted to tiny enclaves. However, when mapped by relative population (fig 1.9D), it once again becomes clear that the counties that went for Obama were much more populous than those who supported McCain.
Will we see similar maps this year? (Note, I didn’t list all the maps Hamer referenced, but I thought these most illustrated his point.)
John Hamer is the Mormon Mapmaker Extraordinaire. Not only does he create maps for many Mormon publications, but he designs covers of books. I especially liked his cover of his own book, Scattering of the Saints: Schism within Mormonism. It shows an astonishing number of branches of Mormonism that most of us are unfamiliar with. In this latest article in the Journal, he has a constellation of Mormonism. I wish it was in color, but here is his rendition of the Constellation of Mormonism. (Note the LDS Church is huge, like Jupiter.)
I also enjoyed what he wrote about temples, and how he displayed information about them.
One final example in this category are diagrams I created to help explain the evolution of temple practices in Community of Christ and the Church of Jesus Christ Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS church) (figs. 1.29A-B). Members of the LDS church have come to associate “temple work” solely with Nauvoo-era practices such as baptisms for the dead, sealing and the endowment ritual. As a result they have almost no context for understanding the Kirtland Temple, which includes no space for any of these functions. The diagrams attempt to show Kirtland-era temple practices had physical space in the Nauvoo Temple and even in the Salt Lake Temple, but are not continued in most newer LDS temples (such as the Columbus Ohio Temple). By contrast, the Community of Christ Temple in Independence takes its inspiration from Kirtland, avoiding Nauvoo-era innovations. In the composite picture, we see that both successor churches have retained different elements from their early heritage.
I do think the LDS really have a poor understanding of the Kirtland Temple, and we would have a hard time reconciling the fact that Joseph Smith charged admission for non-members to see Egyptian mummies in the Kirtland Temple. Such a concept would seem strange to modern Mormons. John Hamer and Barbara Walden gave a fascinating history of the Kirtland Temple.
I thought John gave some interesting maps and diagrams of the missionary journeys of early Mormons as well, noting that (for example) Joseph Smith never lived in Independence, despite it being the proposed site of the New Jerusalem.
I also liked his portrayal of the 1835 Mormon Hierarchy vs the 1847 Hierarchy. What do you make of John’s discussion of maps and diagrams with relation to elections and early Mormonism?
I have enjoyed these political maps before, but never would have done such a good job explaining their relationships.
I have been struggling with a post that doesn’t make sense with a clear understanding of population maps vs. land mass maps. I can now stop slogging through that, and just talk about the impacts on the activities and functions of wards in daily life, when the population map and geographical map are significantly different. (Looking at the advantages and disadvantages of “tight” geographical wards.)
It will be interesting to follow the variety of maps as returns start coming in on Tuesday. 🙂
It can all be looked at as the makers vs. takers map; and, like a cancer it is spreading into the heartland.
Yes Will, I know that people like Mitt are the takers of money from the poor makers of Mitt’s goods, and it is spreading like a cancer. If we let Detroit go bankrupt, I’m sure Mitt will outsource all the jobs to China so the cancer grows over there just like here. (That is what you meant, right??? Or is there another interpretation to your comment?)
Actually, all of the blue areas are the areas in this country deep in debt, high in crime, high in dependency, high in food stamps, high in single parent families and all run by liberal democrats. Clearly, not something you can point to as a success.
Will- That was simply too broad a statement to possibly be true. Googling a single one of your charges indicates that it’s the red states that are most dependent on food stamps: http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2009/11/28/us/20091128-foodstamps.html
Here’s a site that monitors felony convictions: http://www.sentencingproject.org/map/map.cfm I didn’t spend a lot of time on it but prison and jail populations per 100K were lower in CA and MA than any of the red states I checked. You can check for yourself and see if that comparison holds up with other red and blue states. I haven’t got the time.
Maybe someone else would care to check on the accuracy of some of the rest of your statement. I’m not sure how many URLs are allowed but I’m not trusting my luck with more than 2.
Political scientists and economists have spilled some serious ink talking about the subject of voting and geography.
A podcast with show-note links to journal articles:
An interactive precinct-level map of the 2008 election: https://sites.stanford.edu/sssl/2008-obamamccain-vote-precinct
Re: the link to Mormonism. I have no idea. You *did* know that this post was going to devolve into a political shouting match, right? I mean, how could you *not* have seen that that would be the fate of the comments thread. 🙂
I’ll study the other church maps in greater detail later this week, but the difference in size between the LDS and CofC is closer to a factor of 100 than a factor of 10.
As for the political maps, the red-blue division is urban versus rural, with the balance of power turning on the behavior of the suburbs. One should note that the cities like Detroit in deepest financial trouble are controlled by the URBAN party (duh!) and if you look at the local news you will see that local political corruption is an essential part of their problem.
Frankly, a policy to save the bankrupt cities isn’t going anywhere as long as the constituencies of the urban party continue to put up with leaders who get themselves a place at the table and then abandon the people they claim to represent. The rural party may not sacrifice enough for those in the cities under the best of circumstances. They will never do so if they believe they’re just being scammed.